Chicago Public Schools Fiscal Year 2013 Amended Budget

Schools and Networks

Schools and Networks

CEO Jean-Claude Brizard has identified principal autonomy as a key lever for change at CPS. Principals know their schools, and it is critical that they be given freedom to run their schools and to be held accountable for their results. This year's school budgets reflect CPS's commitment to empowering principals to drive student learning by providing schools with more funding to use at their discretion.

We have made significant cuts to operations and administrative spending while devolving centrally-run programs and others to help provide schools with over $130 million in additional discretionary funding; this will give principals and local schools communities the flexibility to design a school day and year that best meets the needs of their students.

For the first time ever, the Office of Budget and Grants Management—in conjunction with the School Support Centers—presented budgets to principals through a series of interactive, in-person meetings. At these meetings, principals were given an overview of the fiscal outlook for CPS and the underlying approach to the budget for FY2013. Principals received their school budgets, and subject matter experts were present to answer questions and talk through changes with principals.

The principles for the FY2013 schools budgets are as follows:

  • Invest in programs that drive student learning
  • Direct more funding to schools
  • Give principals increased flexibility in how to allocate resources

Investing in classrooms
Despite the significant financial challenges facing the district, we are not increasing class size and keeping it at the same level as in FY2012:

Grade Level

FY2012 Class Size

FY2013 Class Size

Kindergarten

28

28

Primary (Grades 1-3)

28

28

Intermediate/Upper (Grades 4-8)

31

31

High School – Core Subjects

28

28

High School – Electives

31

31

Directing more funding to schools
In the FY2013 budget, we have significantly increased the amount of discretionary funds going to schools.

We introduced the College Ready fund, which rolled out $100 million in flexible funds to be used at principals' discretion to design a school day that best supports student learning. More than $70 million in new funding was added to support instructional priorities, such as Common Core State Standards, teacher evaluation, and the Full School Day. The College Ready fund includes the $30 million in funding that has traditionally been allocated to schools for non-personnel items, such as books, supplies, furniture, equipment and repairs.

In addition, we increased the amount of federal Title I discretionary funds allocated to schools by $30 million and provided an additional one-time $27 million in Supplemental General State Aid (SGSA) funds on top of the annual $261 million that schools typically receive.

Giving principals increased flexibility in use of funds
College Ready funds were given to schools in one lump sum, giving principals the flexibility to allocate funds in a way they best believe will drive student achievement. We moved away from the past practice of placing specific amounts in budget lines that restricted how principals could use funding. Schools have different needs, and principals and local school communities – not the central office – are in the best position to make decisions regarding how to allocate resources to address the particular needs of their schools.

We also increased Title I discretionary funding $30 million by eliminating Title I programs that were unnecessary, ineffective or would simply be managed better at the Network or school level.

School Budget Overview

The FY2013 contains over $3.5 billion budget at school units, including almost $2 billion in funding for core education instruction at 682 schools. The following charts show how funds and positions are allocated among the major school types and across the main program areas:

 

FY2013 School Budgets (in $000's)

Core Instruction

Special Education

Bilingual

Early Childhood

Other Programs

Discret-ionary

Operations

Total

Quota Elementary

$1,011,980

$299,938

$25,390

$77,366

$99,346

$338,381

$124,114

$1,976,516

Quota High School

448,359

116,520

4,909

166

37,414

103,439

51,104

761,912

Performance

79,144

17,284

417

3,468

7,456

21,754

9,037

138,559

Per-pupil Pilot

40,167

8,669

1,140

2,393

1,924

10,447

3,593

68,334

Charter/Contract

380,618

40,709

0

0

4,702

53,169

3,676

482,874

Specialty

11,680

41,115

454

3,587

215

3,161

2,536

62,747

Alternative School

19,438

3,901

91

0

3,834

1,484

542

29,291

Achievement Acad.

3,035

589

0

0

0

1,272

372

5,269

Non-Public School

0

4,077

0

0

17,244

0

0

21,321

General

0

0

0

0

9

14

9,513

9,536

Total

1,994,422

532,802

32,401

86,981

172,145

533,121

204,487

3,556,359

 

FY2013 Positions at Schools

Core Instruction

Special Education

Bilingual

Early Childhood

Other Programs

Discret-ionary

Operations

Total

Quota Elementary

10,145.4

4,060.4

253.0

1,039.7

1,100.4

3,018.7

3,234.1

22,851.7

Quota High School

4,591.6

1,401.3

51.5

2.0

391.1

1,009.8

1,220.2

8,667.5

Performance

884.3

244.7

4.0

48.0

79.8

202.1

227.6

1,690.5

Per-pupil Pilot

382.3

120.4

10.5

31.0

22.0

102.3

90.6

759.0

Charter/Contract

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

116.0

116.0

Specialty

188.1

575.3

5.0

47.5

4.0

5.0

56.8

881.7

Alternative School

119.1

37.5

1.5

0.0

28.9

4.0

14.0

205.0

Achievement Acad.

36.0

6.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

15.0

8.0

65.0

Non-Public School

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

31.5

0.0

0.0

31.5

General

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

213.0

213.0

Total

16,346.8

6,445.6

325.5

1,168.2

1,657.6

4,356.9

5,180.3

35,480.9

School Types

For budgeting purposes, we separate schools into eight categories based on how core instruction is funded in each type of school: quota elementary schools, quota high schools, performance schools, per-pupil pilot schools, charter/contract schools, specialty schools, alternative schools, and achievement academies.

Quota Elementary Schools
Quota elementary schools are Pre-K to 8th grade schools that are funded using quota formulas. The formulas ensure that all schools receive an equitable share of positions based on enrollment. A description of the specific quota allocation method for elementary schools can be found in Appendix B.

The following positions are allocated to schools by quota:

  • Classroom teachers
  • Art/Music teachers
  • PE/Librarian teachers
  • School Counselors
  • School Clerks

Elementary schools also receive funding for one principal and one teaching assistant principal.

The FY2013 budget includes just over $1 billion in funding for these core instruction positions at 427 quota elementary schools, serving 216,556 K-8 students. This funding includes 8,466 teacher and counselor positions. Funding for quota elementary schools is down slightly from FY2012 because the number of students has declined.

Quota Elementary Schools

FY2012
Current

FY2013
Projected

Number of schools

436

427

Number of K-8 students

224,581

216,556

Classroom teachers

7,259.5

7,027.5

Art/music/PE/librarians

1,037

1,003

School counselors

441

435.5

Total funding for core instruction

$1,033,200,000

$1,012,000,000

Quota High Schools
The district has 82 high schools that receive their core instruction funding from quota formulas.

The high school quota formula for classroom teachers is significantly different from the elementary formula. The high school formula acknowledges that the school day at a high school is divided into class periods, with students switching their classroom teachers after each period. The quota formula builds in the non-teaching, preparatory time given to classroom teachers (Teachers teach five classes in a seven-period day). The high school quota formulas do not include separate categories for art, music, and PE teachers; these positions are included in the allocation for classroom teachers.

In almost every case, the high school quota formulas, compared with the elementary formulas, provide more teachers for the same number of students. High schools require more resources per student.

In addition to classroom teachers, the high school quota formulas provide allocations for:

  • Librarians
  • School Counselors
  • Assistant Principals
  • School Clerks

The FY2013 budget includes $448 million in funding for core instruction positions at 82 quota high schools, serving 82,850 students. Funding for quota high schools is down slightly from FY2012 because the number of students has declined.

Quota High Schools

FY2012

FY2013 Projected

Number of schools

81

82

Number of students

85,454

82,850

Classroom teachers

3,997.4

3,880.6

Librarians

104

101

School counselors

281

275

Assistant principals

88

84

Total funding for core instruction

$484.9 M

$448.4 M

Performance Schools
The district also supports 22 elementary and nine high schools that are funded on a per-pupil basis. These are district-run schools, staffed with unionized teachers and are subject to comply with all Board policies and procedures. However, their unique per-pupil funding structure allows for additional flexibility and autonomy over their general education resources.

In FY2013, the per-pupil rates will remain unchanged from FY2012, but the number of performance schools has increased by seven to a total of 31 schools, serving almost 15,000 students. The FY2013 budget includes over $79 million in funding for core instruction for these schools.

Per-Pupil Pilot Schools
The district supports another set of 13 elementary schools that are funded on a per-pupil basis, but using a different formula from the one used by performance schools. These schools have a tiered funding structure: smaller schools have a higher per-pupil rate, and the rate decreases as the size of the school increases. This rate structure acknowledges that there is efficiency in size, and that larger schools do not need the same resources per student as small schools to be run effectively.

In FY2013, the per-pupil rates will remain unchanged and the number of per-pupil pilot schools also remains unchanged. The FY2013 budget includes $40 million in funding for core instruction at 13 schools, serving approximately 8,600 students

The fact that there are two different per-pupil funding models is a historical accident that the district plans to end by FY 2014. Over the course of the next year, the district will evaluate per-pupil funding models with the goal of developing a single student funding model that will be used district wide.

Charter/Contract Schools
Charter and contract schools are public schools that are managed by independent operators. First established in Chicago in 1997, they offer an alternative to traditional district schools. Charter schools are approved and certified under the Illinois Charter School Law. Contract schools also are independently managed public schools with similar autonomies as charter schools in budget and curricular operations. Both charter and contract schools are targeted in areas of the city identified as those in need of high-quality education options.

The budget includes $483 million to support 104 charter and contract schools serving approximately 53,000 students. Due to the unique operational structure of these schools, general education resources are provided to schools on a per-pupil basis.

Charter/Contract Schools

FY2012
Current

FY2013
Projected

Number of schools

95

104

Number of students

48,073

53,069

Total charter/contract funding

$426.4 M

$482.9 M

The FY2013 per-pupil rate for charter and contract schools was determined by the Gates Compact, a months-long effort to develop a fair funding formula to ensure that charter and contract schools were fairly funded compared to quota schools. Members of the Portfolio Office and the Office of Budget and Grants Management met with representatives from charter school operators over a series of meetings. All areas of the CPS budget were reviewed to ensure that the per-pupil rates represent a fair reflection of the resources given to district schools.

The per-pupil rates under the Gates Compact rates are slightly higher than the rates used in FY2012, which found that in some areas—particularly special education and facilities—the rates paid were outdated or the funding formula was not current (such as for federal Title I or Title II funds). As a result, the Gates Compact provides for increased reimbursement rates for special education teachers and for facilities usage. All total, charter and contract schools will see a 5 percent ($23 million) increase in funding, without factoring in additional students.

In FY2013, ten new charter schools will open, serving an estimated 2,765 students. Some existing charter and contract schools will have expansion grades, adding an estimated 1,909 students.

Specialty Schools
Specialty schools comprise of four high schools, eight elementary schools and two early childhood centers that are focused on high-needs special education students.  

Because of the special nature of the student population, the majority of teachers at these schools are special education teachers. The elementary or high school quota formulas are applied to these schools, which provide a small number of general education teachers that are typically used for art, music or physical education instruction. This core allocation represents a small portion of the specialty schools' overall budgets.

In FY2013, specialty schools will receive $11.7 million in core instruction, which represents less than 19 percent of the overall budgets of $62.7 million. Projected enrollment at the 14 specialty schools in FY2013 is 2,347 students.

Because special education students are inherently more expensive to educate, the costs of these schools are significantly more expensive than traditional schools when compared on a per-pupil basis.

Alternative Schools
Alternative schools provide educational options to students who have dropped out of traditional high schools. Students attending these schools are between the ages of 17-21 with no more than five high school credits. Alternative schools include one school located at the Cook County Jail (York), one at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Jefferson) and one school serving pregnant women (Simpson). There is also one district run school (Peace & Education Coalition) and nine contract schools serving over-age students without enough credits to graduate.

Alternative schools serve a highly transient population of students who are difficult to educate. For example, the average stay of a student at Jefferson, located at the juvenile detention center, is approximately three weeks, making it difficult to put together a meaningful program of instruction for those students.

Funding of alternative schools is not based on any quota or per-pupil formula tied to enrollment. Enrollment counts at alternative schools can often be misleading, given the highly transient nature of the students. Rather, the core allocation given to alternative schools is based on the programs run at the school and the needs of the students served. In FY2013, alternative schools will receive a core allocation of $19.4 million. These alternative schools are projected to serve approximately 1,600 students.

Achievement Academies
Achievement academies are programs run at seven district high schools that serve 9th and 10th grade students who are significantly behind in grade level. Though housed within existing high schools, achievement academies are budgeted as separate school units from the main schools. Traditionally, achievement academies used different quota formulas based on smaller class sizes, which gave more teachers for the number of students served compared with traditional high schools.

Achievement academies, however, are being phased out. In FY2013, achievement academies will serve only 10th grade students who are currently in the program for one more year. Projected enrollment for FY2013 is 365 students, down from 914 in FY2012. Achievement academies are being funded in FY2013 using the same quota formulas as traditional high schools.

For both of these reasons – fewer students served and change in quota formulas – the funding for achievement academies has decreased dramatically this year. The FY2013 budget includes just over $3.0 million in core instruction for achievement academies, down significantly from $10.2 million in FY2012.

Additional Funding Received By Schools

In addition to the allocation received for core instruction, schools receive additional funding from the following sources:

Special Education
A school receives special education teachers and special education aides (typically teacher assistants, special education classroom assistants and child welfare attendants) based on the number of minutes of specialized instruction that must be provided to the school's special education students, as identified in their individualized education programs (IEP).

Allocations are determined by the Office of Special Education and Supports. In the FY2013 budget, a total of $532.8 million is budgeted for special education school units, including approximately 3,400 special education teachers and 3,000 special education aides.

Bilingual Education
Schools receive supplemental bilingual education teachers based on their number of English language learner (ELL) students. There are two programs: Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE), for schools that have 20 or more ELL students of the same language background, and Transitional Program of Instruction (TPI), for schools that have fewer than 20 ELL students of the same language background. Funding formulas for each program are provided in Appendix B. The Office of Language and Cultural Education (OLCE) tracks ELL students and allocates supplemental bilingual teachers to schools.

The FY2013 budget contains $32.4 million in funding for 322 supplemental bilingual education teachers supporting approximately 51,700 ELL students. Bilingual education is supported by state and federal funding.

Early Childhood
The FY2013 contains almost $87 million in funding for early childhood programs at 372 elementary schools. Early childhood program serve pre-kindergarten students, usually ages 3 and 4. Early childhood programs are funded from a state block grant (Pre-School for All) and federal Head Start funds.

In addition to the $87 million in funding for these early childhood programs, there are other related programs that serve pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students, including full-day kindergarten ($29.9 million), child-parent centers ($6.5 million) and tuition-based pre-K and kindergarten programs ($4.9 million). All total, school budgets include $128.3 million in funding for programs serving pre-K and kindergarten students.

Another $55 million is provided to community-based providers for early childhood programs, as described more fully in the Early Childhood department narrative.

Other Programs
Some schools receive teaching positions or other additional funding for specific programs that are run at those schools. The funding source for these programs is the general education fund. Significant programs include:

Board-Funded Program

No. of Teacher Positions

No. of ESP Positions

FY2013 Budget

Full-Day Kindergarten

308.5

0

$29.9 M

Magnet Cluster Programs

194.5

0

$19.5 M

Magnet Schools

185.5

7

$19.1 M

International Baccalaureate

75.9

0

$8.0 M

Selective Enrollment HS

33

6

$3.7 M

Regional Gifted Centers

25.5

2

$2.8 M

Montessori Programs

11.5

23

$2.1 M

Classical Schools

25

1.3

$1.9 M

Other Grant-Funded Programs
Some schools receive teaching positions or other funding for specific grant-funded programs that are run at those schools. Significant grant-funded programs include:

Grant-Funded Program

No. of Schools

FY2013 Budget

Title II

159

$12.3 M

School Improvement Grants (SIG)

10

$10.7 M

Funding for some grant-funded programs does not show up in schools' budget at this time because funding determinations have not yet been made. Funds will be provided to schools during the year as funding is awarded.

Discretionary Funds
As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, $100 million was budgeted at schools in the College Ready fund. These funds, which are new for FY2013, are general education funds, giving principals the maximum amount of flexibility on how those dollars are spent. All schools except for charter and contract schools received College Ready funds.

Supplemental General State Aid (SGSA) is part of the General State Aid that the district receives from the State of Illinois. SGSA funds are designed to supplement regular and basic programs supported by the General Education Fund. SGSA funds are distributed to schools in proportion to the number of students enrolled who are eligible to receive free or reduced-price lunch under federal statutes. Over $277 million of SGSA funds have been budgeted at schools in FY2013.

Title I of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act provides funds to schools with high concentrations of low-income children to provide supplementary services for educationally disadvantaged students. Approximately 85 percent of CPS schools qualify for Title I discretionary funding. The FY2013 budget contains $153.4 million in Title I discretionary funding for CPS schools.

Teacher FTEs Obtained with
Discretionary Funds

FY2012
Current

FY2013
Projected

College Ready Fund

 

276

SGSA

1,035

1,136

Title I

698

848

Total

1,733

2,260

Non-Education Expenses
Schools receive additional positions and funding for operational expenses, including:

  • Building operations and maintenance: Beginning in FY2013, building engineers will be staffed in citywide units; custodians will remain staffed at individual schools
  • Security: School security officers and security aides are assigned to schools by the Office of Safety and Security
  • Food Service: This includes the labor costs of the lunchroom staff and the food costs required to provide lunch, and sometimes breakfast, to students
  • Transportation: Bus transportation is provided to students with special needs and, with certain restrictions, to students attending magnet schools outside of their neighborhood

Please refer to the department narratives for more details about each of these operational areas.

Private Schools
Student, teachers and parents of private schools are eligible for federal support through No Child Left Behind (NCLB). CPS must set aside a share of the federal funds it receives to make services available to eligible students, teachers and parents, but funds do not go to the private schools. Instead, CPS operates the programs on behalf of the eligible students, teachers and parents of private schools.

Each year, CPS oversees and manages services for approximately 60,000 students in 240 private schools totaling approximately $30 million. In addition, we oversee services for children who attend seven neglected residential sites that specialize in serving children through the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services.

The following chart shows the proportionate shares directed to private schools for each of the federal programs. FY2012 amounts are actual amounts. FY2013 amounts are projections; the final amounts will be determined only after CPS's FY2013 application is approved by the Illinois State Board of Education.

Federal Program

FY2012

FY2013

Title I (Improving Academic Achievement of Disadvantaged Students)

$15,207,825

$14,000,000

Title IIA (Improving Teacher Quality)

2,691,691

2,600,000

Title IIA (Leadership Grant)

50,000

50,000

Title III (English Language Learners)

316,730

316,000

Individual Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

4,971,801

4,400,000

Total

$23,238,047

$21,366,000

Networks/Collaboratives
District-run schools in CPS are organized into five geographic collaboratives – North/Northwest, West, Southwest, South, and Far South – and then further divided into 19 Networks, which provide administrative support, strategic direction and leadership development to the schools within each Network. There are 13 elementary Networks, four high school Networks, one K-12 Network that serves both elementary and high schools, and one alternative Network for alternative schools.

Each Network has a family and community engagement manager focusing on community relations, data strategist focusing on analytics, early childhood specialist, bilingual specialist, and instructional support leaders for each content area. Network chiefs are responsible for ensuring they are building effective schools with effective leaders by developing a professional development plan, collecting and assessing data to drive interventions, collaborating on best practices with other Networks and enhancing community and parental involvement.

All Network chiefs and their offices report to the Office of Network Support.

The following chart shows the size of each Network, including the number of schools and students served as well as the FY2013 budget and staff size:

Network

No. of Schools

Projected FY2013 Enrollment

FY2013 FTE's

FY2013 Budget

Austin-North Lawndale Elementary Network

32

12,783

14.0

$2,053,167

Burnham Park Elementary Network

36

13,735

10.0

$1,740,043

Englewood-Gresham Elementary Network

33

13,238

9.0

$1,496,416

Fullerton Elementary Network

41

29,776

11.0

$1,698,650

Fulton Elementary Network

30

11,834

12.0

$1,834,711

Garfield-Humboldt Elementary Network

28

11,433

15.0

$2,191,112

Midway Elementary Network

36

30,841

10.0

$1,579,212

O'Hare Elementary Network

42

29,321

10.0

$1,600,778

Pershing Elementary Network

31

19,205

8.0

$1,370,953

Pilsen-Little Village Elementary Network

26

16,891

12.0

$1,840,729

Ravenswood-Ridge Elementary Network

40

27,411

11.0

$1,855,626

Rock Island Elementary Network

29

11,721

10.0

$1,545,528

Skyway Elementary Network

40

16,502

11.0

$1,800,380

Far South Side K-12 Network

37

19,812

15.5

$2,356,590

North-Northwest Side High School Network

25

33,928

12.0

$1,889,397

South Side High School Network

19

13,077

13.0

$1,855,615

Southwest Side High School Network

19

17,624

12.0

$1,709,867

West Side High School Network

27

16,051

14.0

$2,043,148

Alternative Schools

6

1,603

13.5

$1,622,605

Total

577

346,786

223.0

$34,084,527

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Page Last Modified on Wednesday, August 27, 2014